Head and neck cancer is a terminology used to describe cancer that develops in the mouth, salivary glands, nose, throat, oral cancers, or any other areas of the head and neck. The majority of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas or cancers that initiate in the lining of the nose, mouth, and throat. The major cause being the consumption of tobacco along with a combination of tobacco and alcohol.
A lump in the nose, neck, or throat, with or without pain
The tumor is simply growing within the part of the head and neck where it started. No cancer cells are present in deeper layers of tissue, nearby structures, lymph nodes or distant sites.
The primary tumor is 2 cm across or smaller, and no cancer cells are present in nearby structures, lymph nodes or distant sites.
The head and neck tumor measure 2-4 cm across and no cancer cells are present in nearby structures, lymph nodes or distant sites.
The tumor fits one amongst the subsequent criteria:
This stage has several categories:
One amongst the subsequent applies:
Cancer cells are present in one lymph node, located on a similar side of the head or neck as the primary tumor and measuring 3-6 cm across.
Cancer cells are present in one lymph node on the alternative side of the head or neck and measuring less than 6 cm across.
Cancer cells are present in two or more lymph nodes, all smaller than 6 cm across and located on either side of the head or neck.
One amongst the subsequent applies:
Cancer cells have spread to distant sites.
During an indirect pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy, small mirrors are placed at the rear of the mouth to examine the throat, at the bottom of the tongue and a part of the larynx.
This procedure allows looking at the top and neck area from the within. An endoscope is inserted within the mouth or nose so on examine hard-to-see areas of the top and neck, just like the larynx and behind the nose.
Panendoscopy is a diagnostic test won’t to examine the upper gastrointestinal system. If tumors are identified during the procedure, samples may be removed for biopsy.
A biopsy is that the single test which provides definitive diagnosis during which the sample of the tissue or cell is collected for biopsy.
The types of biopsies
Images of the chest may be taken to spot whether cancer has spread to the lungs. Cancer mostly is not present in the lungs unless it has advanced.
This test is used to identify irregularities in the larynx, pharynx, mouth and surrounding areas, and is most often used to detect small, early head and neck tumors.
Imaging tests that are used to diagnose head and neck cancer include:
Drugs called checkpoint inhibitors are designed to assist the body’s system to identify and kill tumor cells. These drugs work by disrupting signaling proteins that allow cancer cells to disguise themselves from the system. Immunotherapy might not be an accustomed treat all patients and responses to the treatment may vary. Immunotherapy can also be utilized in combination with other cancer treatments.
Surgery is usually the first-line treatment option for head and neck cancers. Some patients could also be treated with surgery alone; for other patients, combining head and neck cancer surgery with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy could also be appropriate.
These are drugs designed to block development and spread of cancer by attacking specific proteins and preventing cancer cells from dividing or by destroying them directly. One potential target in head and neck cancer is that the epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, which could be a protein found on the surface of the many types of cancer cells. Your doctor may suggest using an EGFR-targeted drug together with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, such as laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer.
These treatments for head and neck cancer are typically reserved for patients whose cancer has metastasized to the bones or elsewhere within the body.
This treatment delivers high doses of radiation to tumor cells within the head and neck using technology designed to scale back damage to healthy tissue and organs. By focusing the radiation directly on the tumor, these therapies may reduce the risk of common side effects related to head and neck cancer treatment.
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